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How to grow vegetables

How to grow tomato

  • Preparation
    • The field is ploughed to a fine tilth by giving one to two ploughing. Consideration should be
      made on the type of irrigation.
    • Furrows are then opened in the recommended spacing.
    • Seedlings are transplanted in furrows in light soils and on the side of the ridges in case of
      heavy soils
    • A pre-soaking irrigation is given 2 days prior to transplanting.
    • Transplanting should preferably be done in the evening.
    • Starter fertilizer is required during transplanting as a basal application (50% of total NPK required).
    • Once transplanted, immediate irrigation is required as well as a control for early pests
      (cutworms).
  • Nursery Management

There are two techniques currently for raising seedlings; use of seed trays and use of
normal ground.

  • Sowing should be done in a well controlled & protected nursery
  • A nursery should be raised with a width of 1m. The soil should be well prepared into a fine tilth and sowing lines of 10cm and 2-3cm depth made.
  • The seeds should be placed on the soil 2cm apart to take between 40-50 plants per sowing line.
  • The seed bed can be covered by use of dry grass/gunny bags and watered gently to avoid splashes
  • Ensure watering is done very early in the morning and frequently after 4 days

 

  • Transplanting
    • Transplant the seedling when it is 7.5 to 10cm in height or 4-5 weeks old or when it has attained 5-6 leaves
    • Irrigate well before & during transplanting. Irrigation should be done early or mid-morning
    • Standard spacing for green house is 60cm x 45cm and for open field is 60cm x 60cm
    • Planting should be done on ridges and/or depending on farmers practice.
    • Basal fertilizer application is recommended during transplanting to aid the plant during the early phase
  • Crop support
    • Staking is recommended for better growth, increased fruit bearing and improved fruit quality
    • Staking also helps to ease cultural operations like spraying, weeding, fertilizer application, earthing up & picking
    • Sowing time: as per regional practices and depending on the varieties.
    • Ideal plant population/acre: 6,000 to 8,000 in the green house and 8,000 to 10,000 in the open field
    • Seedlings are transplanted on the side of the ridges in heavy soils and in the furrows in light soils
    • Transplant healthy & stout seedlings with well-developed root system
  • Fertilizer requirement
    • Fertilizer recommendation should be based on local soil analysis.
    • If farm manure or compost ( 10 - 20 t/ha / 4 - 8 t/acre) is given before crop start, inorganic fertilizer can be reduced by 20%
  • Example: target yield of 80 t/ha needs 320 kg/ha N, 160 kg/ha P and 480 kg/ha K (or 20% less if manure is used)
  • To get the right fruit quality especially, the ration N:K = 1:1.5 is important
  • Ca: is not so much defined by yield/ha, but by soil pH. A rate of 100 – 200 kg Ca/ha is recommended, the lower the soil pH, the higher the rate

How to grow cabbage

  • Preparation
    • Factors to consider when choosing cabbage
      • Head size 
      • Head weight
      • Yield potential  
      • Pest and disease tolerance/resistance
      • Market availability 
      • Preferences
    • Soil & climate for cabbage production
      • Well drained, fertile, sandy loam rich in organic matter with PH of 6.5 - 7.5 is ideal for cultivation
      • For early maturing crop, sandy loam soils are considered best. For late maturing crop clay loam soil/heavy soils are best
      • Optimum temperatures for seed germination are 25-30ºC
      • Optimum temperatures for growth & head formation in Cabbage are 15-20ºC
      • Heat tolerant varieties of Cabbage can form compact head under tropical conditions in day temperatures of 30-35ºC
  • Soil charactersistics
    • Well drained soils, with high organic matter that exhibit high water holding capacity are suitable
    • Soils with pH more than 6.8 should be adjusted by broadcasting hydrated lime 2-3 days prior to planting.
  • Nursery Management
    • There are two techniques currently for raising seedlings; use of seed trays and use of normal ground.
    • Sowing should be done in a well controlled & protected nursery raised with a width of 1m.
    • The soil should be well prepared into a fine tilth and sowing lines of 10cm and 2-3cm depth made.
    • The seeds should be placed on the soil 2cm apart to take between 40-50 plants per sowing line.
    • The seedbed can be covered by use of dry grass/gunny bags and watered gently to avoid splashes
    • Ensure watering is done very early in the morning and frequently after 4 days.
    • During nursery stage expect soil borne pests and diseases that you need to protect the seed from.
    • Damping off is also a common issue that prevents development of seedlings.
    • Expect infestation of cutworms after transplanting is done
  • Transplanting
    • Transplant seedlings when 10 - 15cm tall or have 5 or 6 leaves
    • Water the bed the previous day before transplanting them to their permanent position.
    • Transplant the cabbage plants in the evening to minimise shock. Keep as much soil around the roots as you can.
    • Spacing can vary depending on market requirement but standard spacing of 60cm x 60cm is recommended
    • Apply 8-10 MT/acre of well decomposed farm yard manure and mix well with the soil
    • Apply base fertilizers rich in phosphorus on the planting hole such as N:P:K at a rate of 10gms per hole
    • Top-dress 3-4 weeks after transplanting with nitrogenous fertilizers
    • Irrigation should be done early or mid-morning
  • Fertilizer requirement
    • Fertilizer requirement will depend on the soil analysis done prior to planting. However the following is a guide 120: 60: 60 kg NPK/acre
      • Split applications are the most recommended. 1st split of CAN at 10gms per plant.
      • First top dressing (15-20 Days after Transplanting); 50 kg of C.A.N/Acre.
      • 2nd split to be applied two weeks later at 5g per plant, avoid excessive nitrogen application as it causes split heads.
      • Second top dressing (40-45 Days after transplanting): 100 Kg of Ammonium Sulphate/ acre +30 kg of MAP/ acre.
      • Top dressing should be applied in bands and after each application earthing up of plants is necessary
      • Cabbage has shallow root system and hence requires frequent & light irrigations especially during head formation.

How to grow pepper

  • Preparation
    • Ensure crop is grown on fertile land. Use manure to enrich soil with nutrients or apply fertiliser at planting period such as N.P.K at 10gms per hole as general application
      Note: It is vital to confirm soil nutrients through soil analysis
  • Nursery Management
    • It is recommended to raise seedlings in the nursery bed for 6-8 weeks before transplanting to the main field or green house.
    • Drench with Actara after sowing seeds and before transplanting to prevent early attacks by soil and sucking pests at nursery stage.
  • Transplanting
    • Standard spacing: for green house is 60cm x 45cm and for open field is 60cm x 60cm.
    • Drench seedlings: Actara when transplanting to prevent early attack by aphids, whiteflies and thrips.
    • Note: Actara is recommended for drenching at nursery transplanting stage for the following benefits:
      • Stronger, vigorous seedlings
      • Longer fibrous roots
      • Higher germination rate
      • Virus resistance
      • Protection aganist sucking pests
  • Crop support
    • The crop can be grown as a bush or reduced to 2-3 main primary suckers. For bush culture the crop is not pruned but allowed to have more than three main branches.
    • Under 2-6 primary main branches the crop needs a string/twine to support particularly under greenhouse production.
    • Under good support and good agronomic growing conditions greenhouse pepper can be harvested for a period of over six months in the green house and more than three months under open fields production.
  • Fertilizer requirement
    • Foliar Fertilizers can be used to supplement Soil Applied Fertilizers especially during periods of crop stress.
    • Top dress 6-4 weeks after transplanting with N.P.K (complete fertilizer) at 10gms per plant ( confirm through soil nutrients analysis). Repeat three weeks later.